Options for permanent, reusable transportation systems for flying between bases and Martian orbit.
Described in the previous article the concept of practical industrialization of the Martian orbit, through the creation of the satellites of Mars supporting the industrial base of asteroid resources development system. And gradually transition to the development of the Martian surface, as being «about Martian industrial system», will grow to a global scale. A chance at the beginning of the practical development and settlement of Mars, in the foreseeable future, for three or four decades. But favorable conditions for the development of infrastructure of transport systems on the Martian orbit, compared to Earth’s. Which provides a relatively low gravity and orbital velocity on Mars, potentially allow to start the deployment of orbital transport infrastructure, in the initial stages of manned exploration of Mars.
Capabilities that allow infrastructure removal system for future Martian programs.
transport infrastructure deployment of the first stages of the Martian programs require substantial financial costs. But in the future, their functioning can greatly reduce the cost of flights between the Martian surface and shaved, which correspondingly easier and cheaper future Martian program. Especially simplify the task of returning crews to Mars bases. And, in addition, due to the relative simplicity of creating Martian infrastructure transport systems, they can play the role of an incubator of technologies for perspective, space, land transport infrastructure. And as such, the Martian transport infrastructure will serve not just economic, or demonstration objectives, and serve one of the stages of the global industrialization of the solar system.
In promising Martian transport infrastructure, in comparison with similar projects for the land has certain specific features. On land, transport infrastructure should be primarily cargo. Since in the near space basic demand excretion in space satellites and fuel. In the future, with the development of the industrialization of near-Earth space, will increase the share of the various equipment of industrial space system. Reusable spacecraft and parts, industrial machine tools, robots and the like. But the main cargo space transportation systems, in any case, will remain, fuel, equipment and a variety of materials, to the near-Earth space grouping.
On the ground, in all probability, it will be used to minimize the principle. Excretion cargo space in small portions, as light units or individual components, followed by assembly of these relevant items on the manned stations. This principle makes it possible to reduce the cost of space infrastructure, without losing its functionality.
On Mars, the transport infrastructure of the problem will be different. First of all, it will be necessary to derive space manned spacecraft with the crews on board the Mars stations. All equipment and consumables for the Martian orbital constellation, will be delivered from the ground or base on the Martian moons. For the descent from orbit and landing on Mars, special transport systems are needed. Because of the low orbital velocity on Mars brake shield can be made of ceramic materials, which are sufficient to Mars satellites. Brake rocket engines to reduce speed before planting can be done at about the Martian industrial base, without much cost. In deducing any cargo from the surface of Mars will not be a special practical necessity. Minerals, which is on Mars, is also available on its satellites or asteroids, with a much lower transport costs. The only potential Martian material goods, will research the samples of Martian rocks, to deliver on the ground. But their mass fraction will be miserable, and do not need to create special transport systems for them. Samples are cheaper and easier to place in orbit chemical rockets, doing for them a special, low-cost, transport infrastructure.
Infrastructure transport systems will be in demand, mainly to return to orbit crews manned Martian missions. Delivered to the surface of Mars for the return of the rocket crews expensive, and this is one of the main items of expenditure in planning manned missions to Mars. As an example, you can put the project «Mars One», which is a record low declared value, in the range of ten billion dollars, because of the refusal to return to the ground crews. For comparison, the NASA project, with the return of the crews of rockets delivered from the land, worth about $ 500 billion. Project Robert Zubrin, «Mars Direct» to return to the rocket delivered to Mars from the earth, but fueling produced «on the spot», from the Martian atmosphere, is worth about $ 30 billion.
As planned by the concept of «Around the Martian industrial base» infrastructure, there will be orbital tugs for cheap flights to Mars, and a base on the Martian satellites, along with a light and versatile production equipment, which can make low-cost modules and designs for the Mars bases. It only remains to add low-cost transport system for return to the Martian surface, and regular, manned missions to Mars will be as accessible as modern flight to the ISS.
Features Martian infrastructure removal systems.
Martian conditions, on the one hand, facilitates the task of creating the infrastructure of transportation systems, making it much easier to implement and is about ten times cheaper cost. But on the other hand, the specifics of the Martian, removing infrastructural systems imposes certain restrictions.
Manned spacecraft can not make it easier to a certain limit, which imposes limits on the miniaturization, weight reduction of the orbital transport systems. The weight of the lightest, single, manned capsules can not be less than a few hundred kilograms. The weight of the pilot, approximately, around a hundred kilos. Plus the minimum necessary facilities and rescue equipment as the main, to fly in orbit and landing of the capsule, so that emergency and for emergency rescue pilot.
Unlike goods, pilots can not withstand high overload. Maximum operational overload for manned capsules can not be more than 7, 10, to gravity units. And optimum overload are at levels 3, 5, terrestrial gravity.
Based on these conditions, electromagnetic gun and orbital rope sling being excluded. Too high overload. There remain, reusable rocket planes, space elevators, and acceleration system to orbital velocity by using the kinetic energy of the neutral substance «working fluid» having a space velocity, the inventor proposed «Alexander Maiboroda», «orbitron».
Reusable chemical rockets for missions to Mars.
Reusable rocket planes, perhaps the easiest and cheapest option. Due to the low Mars orbit speed of 3600 meters per second, in order to achieve that, we need about two times lower rate than in the land of 8000 kilometers per second, and four times less kinetic energy.
For flights to Mars, it is possible to design a reusable, single-stage chemical rocket lifesaving equipment, devices for controlled flight in the atmosphere and the soft-landing systems. Such missiles can carry out regular flights from the surface into orbit without requiring costly. But they also have their limitations. For efficient production of propellant carbon dioxide atmosphere Mars, needed hydrogen. If there is a hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane may be synthesized, or kerosene and liquid oxygen. «Methane — Oxygen» or «Kerosene — oxygen», is an effective fuel vapor, with a good energy. But on Mars, hydrogen deficiency. From the atmosphere to obtain relevant quantities it is impossible, the hydrogen content of the compounds in the atmosphere of the planet scanty. Therefore,
The source of hydrogen can be water, which can be obtained on Mars on Mars satellites or asteroidal materials. But at present water on Mars is not detected. And if it is found there, not the fact that it will be in sufficient concentrations and affordable enough for production in large quantities. The water may be on the Martian moons. In the basic version, «Phobos» and «Deimos», asteroids, class «Uglestyh chondrites», captured by the gravitational field of the planet. The clay of this class asteroids, water may be present in the form of hydroxide, in amounts of from 1 to 20 percent by weight. But now, we can not definitely assume that the water on the Martian moons is, and its content is sufficient for the production of fuel. The source of water can also serve as an asteroid materials. Some asteroids consist entirely of ice, dust with impurities, but flights to asteroids, these are additional costs, and to deliver the asteroid water in the right quantities, you need to prepare operating group of powerful orbital tugs. On the development of the asteroid, the transport system will take time, and it is not possible to plan the production of fuel from the asteroid water in the early stages of manned Mars program.
Without hydrogen, Martian fuel, and suborbital rocket planes.
Produce mars on the propellant, is possible without the use of hydrogen. Such «hydrogen-free» fuel vapor may be liquid, «carbon monoxide» — «Carbon Monoxide», paired with oxygen. Coal, in the form of solid, graphite, fuel cells, burning in oxygen, such a motor, the construction may be similar to the «hybrid rocket — RDT», for solid fuel and liquid oxidizer. But carbon monoxide, very low energy, therefore, a pair of «Carbon dioxide — oxygen» can not be an effective propellant. In solid carbon, paired with oxygen, energy is higher but the efficiency of the fuel vapors also noticeably inferior to «hydrocarbon fuel» is paired with oxygen. In addition, hybrid rocket heavier liquid, which also diminishes opportunities
Chances to get into orbit, on hydrogen-fueled questionable. If you use only the multi-stage rocket. But hydrogen-fuel energy enough to fly on «suborbital» trajectory. Short jumps, a height of a few hundred kilometers above the atmosphere, without a set of orbital velocity, and without going into orbit. Flights on a suborbital trajectory does not require large energy inputs. And effective reusable suborbital vehicles, Mars, can be constructed based on a hydrogen-free fuel is little effective. Known examples of terrestrial suborbital vehicles, it is a rocket «Fau — 2», the world’s first liquid ballistic missile, constructed by the Germans at the end of the Second World War. Or rocket planes «Speysship — 1» and «Speysship — 2», designed for tourist flights, on a suborbital trajectory. Rocketglider Speysship — 1, is a reusable winged apparatus, with very efficient hybrid engine on liquid nitrous oxide and solid fuel, based on rubber. And his successful flights, demonstrate the ability to create such a ship for a suborbital flight to Mars.
Martian space elevator.
Another potentially infrastructure for Mars vehicle may be a space elevator, consisting of a cable, stretched to the counterweight, on a fixed orbit Mars or nearest satellite Mars, «Phobos.
The main advantages of a space elevator, is that for it to work does not require jet engines. Not traditional chemical engines of missiles. Not electric rocket engines, which are needed to compensate for the slowing of the orbital velocity of the sling, or other vehicles space transport infrastructure, the principle of which in intercepting small cargo modules of suborbital flight and disperse them to the orbital velocity, due to its own kinetic energy. Elevator, represents «no rocket» means removal is purely driven vehicle, consisting of a cable and moving it along the cabin, and therefore requiring no fuel cost and is extremely simple to operate.
For the variant of the elevator, the rope which is attached to Phobos, suborbital rocket is still needed. Since Phobos revolves around Mars at a speed of 2140 meters per second, and the lower end of a cable attached to it, will move relative to the surface of Mars at a speed of about 530 meters per second. Attach the cable to Phobos, it is technically easier than doing a special counterweight, above the stationary orbit. But due to the movement of a cable in this embodiment of the elevator, will need intermediate delivery vehicles cabins, to mate with the lower end of a cable, whose height may be about 120 kilometers above the surface. For docking with a rope can come reusable rockets without hydrogen fuel, which has a low efficiency, but easily resumed at Martian conditions.
The main disadvantages of a Martian elevator, it is the high cost and short life span of a cable, a resource which, due to the destructive action of meteoric dust, is about 5 years. As well as the absence of a real need for more cargo traffic from Mars to orbit in the early stages of development of this planet. What makes the lift, excessive and expensive vehicle, the first Mars program.
In contrast to the space elevator project on the ground, the cable is still no materials required strength. Projects Martian elevator is technically realizable, modern high-strength materials are able to withstand the pressure on the cable. Materials for the manufacture of cables may be organic polymers, such as «Kevlar» or «Vectran», composites, such as «CFRP», or perhaps high strength mineral fiber-based, silicon or basalt filament. Mineral fiber, the ratio is inferior durability and ease of polymers and composites, but it can be made in space, of the asteroid, moon or the raw material.
Approximate cable weight, Mars elevator, from a few hundred to thousand tons. Cable mineral fiber can be significantly heavier from thousands to several thousand tons. The cost of a Martian elevator can be roughly estimated at 50, 100 billion dollars. Provided that will come into operation powerful orbital tugs capable of delivering hundreds of tons of cargo on the Martian orbit at low cost, in the range of several million dollars per tonne.
the space elevator project for Mars, is much simpler and cheaper to implement than similar projects for the land. But from an economic point of view of a Martian elevator, as a link Martian first generation of transport infrastructure is not effective. The main advantage of a space elevator, in front of other infrastructure funds withdrawn, it is an opportunity to deliver into orbit large volumes of goods with low operating costs. And in that capacity, «cargo cableway into space,» space elevator projects can confidently justify spent money on them. Such removal system would be in great demand on the ground. Or on the moon, after the beginning of its industrial development. But on Mars, the specific activity is such that the lift will not be able to justify the money invested in it. Build a transport system that can display dozens, or hundreds of thousands of tons, for the sake of returning crews Martian bases, every few years, there is not much sense. Build the elevator, on the basis of the future, too, it makes no sense, because of the limited resources of a cable, the cables will have to be changed every 5 years.
Therefore, a space elevator to Mars, the project is relatively simple and cheap, but it will be claimed only after the mass development of Mars, when the flow of goods from planet to orbit, will be calculated for at least thousands of tons per year. In the early stages of exploration of Mars elevator project from the surface into orbit, not cost effective.
As a potential transport system infrastructure «Surface — orbit», Mars, draft proposed by the inventor, Alexander Maiboroda can be used, «orbitron». The principle of operation Orbitron, to use substances having energy cosmic speed to disperse the suborbital vehicles to orbital velocity, by direct confrontation, stretched in time, to accelerate fluidity. Simply speaking, the flow of the neutral substance — «working fluid», such as dust, from the soil, formed in the orbit, is directed exactly in the motor vehicle being in suborbital jumps, at a height reference orbit, but not having the orbital velocity. Feed material smoothly transfers its energy and speed unit, driving it like a rocket engine. But unlike rockets to disperse, the unit does not need to take with you and burn more fuel mass. Energy working fluid at an orbital velocity is high enough. For an earth, a minimum orbital speed of 8 kilometers per second, it is about 3, 4, times the energy of a conventional, liquid, propellant. Since, the bulk fuel rockets consumed by the acceleration of the fuel due to its low energy. Increasing the working fluid energy at times, will give a tenfold decrease in the working fluid flow rate in comparison with the chemical fuel. the bulk of the fuel is expended in missiles for acceleration of the fuel due to its low energy. Increasing the working fluid energy at times, will give a tenfold decrease in the working fluid flow rate in comparison with the chemical fuel. the bulk of the fuel is expended in missiles for acceleration of the fuel due to its low energy. Increasing the working fluid energy at times, will give a tenfold decrease in the working fluid flow rate in comparison with the chemical fuel.
Instead rocket filled with chemical fuel and weighing 30, 40, times greater than the payload in orbitron system for removing vehicles in orbit, it is sufficient to use up to several times the weight of the lunar soil asteroid material gas captured from the atmosphere of the planet, or another readily available in space matter. Readily available substance, with the proviso that they shall operate cheap, reusable, or in-line space vehicles, such as orbital tugs or cable systems, to remove cargo from the planets of low gravity. Creating space transportation infrastructure will take time and money. But to reduce costs in the early stages of the project, the author plans to launch the operating body from the ground, grabbing his «orbital collectors» from suborbital jump by special ships. Orbital collectors must disperse the working fluid to the orbital velocity due to the direct collision with the special targets. Withdrawing the bound material from the suborbital small portions, and restoring the lost speed by the operation of electric thrusters powered by the solar panels.
Thus, the escape velocity is the working body, will be given to economic engines, powered by a gratuitous solar energy. The working fluid after intercepting collectors, will be used to accelerate the spacecraft, but spent it will be ten times more economical than chemical fuel. And hence orbitron may serve as an inexpensive and highly efficient transportation system.
Under the project, a certain perspective, it is planned the transition from the working fluid output to the earth’s orbit, through the sewers, on lunar soil. Into orbit similarly, through special «lunar orbital collectors.» Must loads from the moon, much easier than with the earth, energy lunar earth orbital velocity less, approximately 16 to 25 times. For suborbital jump to the moon, do not need special vehicles, ground jets can just toss a height of several hundred meters, mechanical catapults, without spending fuel.
Commissioning orbitron system in the early stages, will reduce the cost of removing the fuel and materials into orbit with the help of collectors, up to 200, 300 dollars per kilogram, which is 3, 12 times more profitable than traditional breeding missiles. The cost of the launch of space due to the kinetic energy of the working fluid flows, thus, may be about $ 1,000 per kilogram. Later, during the transition to a lunar working body, the cost of the launch of space may be reduced to 50, 100 dollars per kilogram, and at the same time will begin a large-scale commercial development of lunar resources. We can say to the land, Orbitron system is the ability to move to a qualitatively new stage of space exploration, comparable in efficiency with the space elevator, but it is much simpler and cheaper to implement.
For Mars, Orbitron system makes it possible to create an inexpensive, permanent transport connections to the planet without the super expensive, large-scale projects. Therefore, it may be considered as a potential transport infrastructure system «Phase», which allows to reduce the implementation costs of the Martian programs in the future.
The project Mars Orbitron may be some differences from the original, designed for terrestrial conditions. Primarily due to a low speed orbital aloft. From 3600 meters per second, at a low circular orbit, up to 4500 meters per second, on an elongated orbit. In terrestrial orbitron assumed supplied to the combustor so long threads of mineral fibers with glued to them pulverulent lunar soil, the so-called «Tracks». For the tracks formed on the transfer orbit «moon — earth», it is planned to counter the speed of about 10 kilometers per second. At this speed, the material of tracks, consisting of dust and yarn microscopic thickness, must be completely vaporized in the combustion chamber of the engine, just as meteor dust evaporating, during re-entry. Evaporation of the tracks of the working fluid, It should create a plasma jet flowing out of the engine at a high speed. Giving, high thrust and high jet impulse. But it aloft, the speed is too low for the complete evaporation of the working fluid mineral. And if the tracks will not evaporate when ingested motor and the friction of the plasma, they will simply punch engines, together with the devices as cumulative, armor-piercing projectiles.
For Mars Orbitron can form scattered jet dust particles or capsules with pulverized soil Mars satellites. Not directing them to analog combustion chamber, and armor plates of heat-resistant materials. But because of the high energy density of the dust flows, friction is likely to melt and break the most heat-resistant materials. Therefore, this option is likely to be used at relatively low speeds of working fluid colliding with vigorous cooling, or hybrid embodiments, combining a solid and a gaseous working fluid, allowing to reduce thermal exposure of the plate.
In my opinion, as a basic embodiment Mars Orbitron most logical to use the working fluid, consisting of crystals of frozen gases that evaporate from hitting the surface of the engine, allowing to avoid the risk of melting or overly rapid destruction.
The primary source of working fluid to be used Mars gas atmosphere, special gripping orbital collectors with low Mars orbit.
The working body can serve and oxygen derived from the soil Mars satellites. But the production of oxygen would require a lot of energy and special production facilities. Oxygen will need to deliver on the Martian orbit plasma tugs. This additional infrastructure costs, which are not essential. Gas Martian atmosphere closer and more accessible in all respects.
Orbital collectors to capture Mars atmospheric gases.
Orbital collectors to capture Mars atmosphere gas may be in the form analogues supersonic aircraft with air intakes at the bow, flying in elliptical orbits, and flies in the air for a short time in the low areas — «perigee» orbit. Or flying devices along a circular orbit, slightly above the upper boundary of the atmosphere, and takes the gas intakes by means omitted for long flexible pipes, length of several tens of kilometers.
The collector is entirely immersed in the atmosphere, may be in the form of planes with nasal air inlets such as «MIG 21». With little wings and rudders allow you to maneuver in the atmosphere during the dive. But perhaps the collector housing will be more appropriate to make a flat, rather than cylindrical as in an airplane. After passing through the intakes of hypervelocity, about 4000, 4500 meters per second, the gas will be strongly compressed and warmed to a temperature of about 4000 degrees Celsius.
From intakes, the gas must flow into the compartment with granular soil, which will be cooled to a temperature of about 300 700 degrees Celsius, after which, already in orbit, must gradually flow into the intermediate storage compartment, cooled in a radiator of radiation. From intermediate compartments in which the gas is stored at room temperature, in a compressed or supercritical gas must pass in prolonged storage compartments. On the way in which, it must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures, and to enter them in the form of a liquid or a crystalline powder. From the storage tanks, the working body must periodically climb orbital tugs, for delivery to specialized orbital modules, serving for the formation of a working body jets. After dipping into the atmosphere, the apogee of the elliptical orbit «Submersible collectors» will be reduced. To restore the orbit must be used powerful plasma engines. The energy source can serve Folding solar panels, photovoltaic cells consisting of a film carrying on farms folding, folding in the atmosphere before the immersion. The energy may also be specialized to supply «Power Plants», in the form of focused laser beams or microwaves, which can be used to generate energy and to heat the plasma in plasma engines.
Collectors, exciting the gas, without immersing into the atmosphere, may have slight intakes, lowered into the atmosphere by the thin and flexible tubes of heat-resistant materials. In this embodiment, intakes should work continuously and gas from the intakes should flow into the tanks through the tubes, cooling the path of the radiation method. Source of energy, can serve not folding solar panels. Enters the gas manifolds must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and stored similarly submerged collectors.
Tracks of granules.
Modules for forming tracks should emit directed queue small pellets consisting of small crystals of frozen carbon dioxide, sintered at a predetermined temperature, similar packed snow. Or the granules of a foil or a mineral fiber filled crystalline powder from carbon dioxide. By shooting them in the right direction of the air cannons high rate. Divergence flows capsules should be within a circle with a diameter from one to several meters. Rate of guns from several tens to several hundreds of shots per second. Speed capsules, about 30, 50 meters per second, faster one hundred times, to counter the speed of the flow of capsules should be frequent enough to create a uniform traction without appreciable vibration and at the rate of departures.
Possible types of orbital vehicles operating on tracks energy.
Capsules, intended to disperse the tracks can be designed to a few basic types.
Ships, greeting the tracks simple, flat armor plate. Having a certain inclination angle, allowing the apparatus in the sub-orbital flight, to compensate the force of gravity due to the thrust of the displacement vector, while the unit will not be accelerated to an orbital velocity. This type of ship, the most simple and easy, but this design, to control the apparatus, it is difficult to use the gas flow deviation triggered by the engine tracks. control of the ship, it will be possible due to the on-board rocket motors. And the device itself, are unstable and will be difficult to manage, due to the fact that he would be in a state of unstable equilibrium.
It will have to constantly adjust to the boost phase, and correction will require heavy-duty engines, comparable to the weight of the machine, which consequently require to carry a substantial margin of propellant. One advantage of this scheme, the opportunity to work on hard working bodies.
Apparatus cylindrical shape, with tapping device similar to intake manifold Mars atmosphere gas. In this construction, the particles will evaporate tracks passing through the intake device, and pass through the pipe as a compressed stream hypersonic gas nozzle in deployed in the opposite direction. Flowing from that, the gas will create additional thrust. This scheme makes it easy to redistribute the gas flow in the pipes directing it to the nozzle, creating vertical thrust to maintain the self-weight unit and the control motors. The unit of this scheme will be harder, but it does not need to control the onboard supply of propellant, it will be more stable due to the fact that the nozzles deployed from the opposite direction will be to stabilize the position of the vehicle on the track oriented stream of particles. And it is better controlled. The energy of the tracks will be used more effectively, due to the fact that the flow of gases passing through the engines, will unfold in a reverse direction, and further accelerated in the supersonic jet nozzles producing thrust. In this scheme, zabrnik can be equipped with a grid of heavy-duty materials, passing through which, track pellets will be broken up into a uniform mixture of dust and gas, which will reduce the load on the surface of the intake device and the internal mechanisms of gas distribution.
It is also possible embodiment of the above circuit system, with tapping device receiving track particle stream in the form of a concave cone funnel. This form of intake is not ergonomic, funnel longer than a traditional nasal intake in the form of a truncated cone with a crater in the center. But the advantage of this form is that it tends to stabilize itself, due to the fact that when a deviation from an optimum orientation relative to the track of the particle flux, the device will endeavor to return to its original position.
The device may be a wedge shape, whereby, the track particle stream will assume the housing. But due to a high angle, the energy of the collision with the flow will be reduced. In this circuit, the track particle stream breaking against the housing, to surround its dense gas hypersonic flow. This «near-surface», the flow can be deflected in the opposite direction, using the nodules at the end of the cone, increasing this thrust. And deflecting the flow flaps or small latticed wings to control the apparatus. Wedge shape, combines simplicity and good handling. But the wedge shape of devices is not very convenient, especially for passenger vehicles, though, may be optimal for cargo modifications.
Apparatus hybrid circuit having a truncated wedge shape with the suction at the tip can combine two main advantages, the above circuits. With this arrangement, the main horizontal thrust may be generated and the influx casing. A gas flow coming from the suction and passing through an internal tube, can be used to generate vertical thrust and control, giving good handling. Such hybrid circuit is ergonomic enough, but at the same time combines the simplicity, ease and good handling.
Capsules Martian Orbitron, should work similarly reusable rocket planes for flights between the surface and orbit. Starting from the surface on the reusable chemical rockets, accelerated to an orbital velocity due to energy Orbitron tracks. And after transplantation pilots on the orbiter, braking in the atmosphere and landing on chemical engines, like promising reusable ships or rocket stages, such as the «Dragon» or «grasshopper,» developed by the company «Space X».
Benefits orbitron system for Mars.
Orbitron, one of the cheapest and easily implemented infrastructure space transportation systems, for removing vessels from the surface of Mars. The level of technology and technical capabilities needed to create Martian Orbitron, not beyond the capabilities of the modern scientific system of industrial land. The estimated cost of the Martian Orbitron, does not exceed several tens of billions of dollars. Which is comparable to the cost of a single manned expedition to Mars. But the presence of such a transport system infrastructure, will significantly reduce the costs of the Martian programs in the future. Therefore, Mars Orbitron, can be considered as a potential flagship projects to facilitate further manned missions to the planet.
The main weakness of the Martian Orbitron that this project gives the ratio of the cost effectiveness of the project reusable chemical rocket planes. Therefore, in case of detection on Mars rich and readily accessible source of water or other hydrogen compounds orbitron may lose its relevance. Strengths of the Martian Orbitron, can be attributed to the independence of mestiorozhdeny water ice, even if they are detected, allowing to freely choose the placement of the Mars bases. And as universality Orbitron as infrastructural launch vehicle from different planets, little dependent on the conditions at their surface. What makes Orbitron project on Mars, the prototype of similar breeding systems with Mercury or satellites of the giant planets.
Permanent transport infrastructure, the road to Mars.
Infrastructure projects of transportation of space systems for the development of the initial stage of the Martian programs technically possible and profitable, based on the long-term plans. Of these projects, the cheapest to implement, reusable project, chemical rocket planes. The most versatile, Orbitron project. Mars space elevator may be used in the future, during the transition to a massive development of Mars.
Availability of infrastructure removal systems on Mars, along with some industrial base and Martian orbital transport system. It allows to transfer future manned missions to the planet from the category of single, expensive and complex to implement, in the category of affordable and permanent. Giving the opportunity to regularly build Martian base and send them new expedition. Just as it is now developing a program of manned space stations in Earth orbit.
On the ground, a permanent and large-scale development of any remote region, to his first paving transportation routes. By analogy with the earth in space, transport infrastructure development, will make it available for development. And the constant removal system on Mars, will serve as one of the main transport infrastructures, which will be costly to the development of this planet.