Outer space has long been available, but the development of the people of the solar system is still not emerged from the stage of trial visits. And restrain a full-scale cosmic expansion is not so much the high cost of flights, as traditionalism government agencies that continue to work in line with scientific and promotional tasks, and if they are planning to practical activities, based on the traditional approaches, which are inefficient in space to Earth. Now to space exploration began to connect new, private groups with practical programs that can translate the space program in the new channel. But taken private programs are highly fragmented, poorly connected and poorly integrated into the Earth’s industrial and economic environment.
I — non-systemic analyst and supporter of the colonization of space. But, unlike most alternative service innovators, and my specialization is not engineering, and organizational. I can offer a new concept of private space exploration, which is based on the industrial system able to carry out various activities. And makes profitable association of various programs related to space resources and services into a single structure, the world of «space of financial and industrial group.» Which will be linked to the key industries of the Earth, as their continuation in extraterrestrial space. And it will have sufficient resources to carry out large-scale industrial space tug, able to transform humanity into cosmic civilization in the foreseeable future.
From satellite services to the global industrialization of the solar system
Currently the mass of practical space exploration is due to the development of a global group of satellites in Earth orbit.
Satellite constellation and information services provided by satellites cost-effective and highly integrated into the global information environment. Satellite constellation and space information service — this is the first stage of a large-scale practical space exploration.
Satellites can not serve as a means of exploration of the solar system, as it is automatic orbital, of the earth’s information infrastructure. But satellite constellation can serve as a basis for the development of a new phase of space industrialization associated with the development of infrastructure for the removal of satellites in orbit, transportation and maintenance of these devices in outer space.
This «transport and operational system» will be built on top of the satellite constellation. Which from an economic point of view, will be part of the scope of space-based services and, therefore, will be based on a strong economic ground.
But from a technical point of view, it will not be a swarm of machines in orbit and a complete industrial system, capable of a variety of activities. Related to transport services, installation, maintenance, production, and development of practical alien raw materials. And the prototype of future space industry.
In the early stages of development of «industrial group» should work on maintenance of the existing satellites. At the stage of growth it should develop, together with the satellite constellation, helping it to develop new types of space-based services. Such as satellite communications via cell phones and space solar energy. Contributing to the rapid growth and development in all areas of space exploration. After several decades of growth industrial group will receive sufficient power and development to move from service-Earth spacecraft to direct industrial development of the solar system.
Principles of organization and stages of development of space industrial groupings
Industrial group should consist of several major infrastructure systems:
Flow removal system, allowing many times, reduce the cost of delivering cargo into orbit.
Grouping of orbital tugs, which are permanent and affordable transport system to move in the open space.
Resource base on the Moon, which is the basic fuel source for orbital tugs and mineral raw materials for processing in the orbital stations.
And large near-Earth manned station serving the main support base for conducting diverse, complex human activities in space and performs the functions of a transport hub.
Flow removal system
The basis of the production launch system make easy, but very simple and cheap to manufacture vehicle «Pony», designed for simplified technology. Whose main task — delivery to the space station standardized modular units.
And the space station, performing the function of the orbital transport and «Spaceport» assembly center. In which of the delivered missiles «Shepherd» modular units must be mounted in a variety of satellites and other space vehicles.
This way of clearance to create a constant flow of cargo from Earth to orbit, with low cost and low cost of removal of not more than $ 1,000 per kilogram. That in 3-7 times cheaper than the most profitable production media of today. And make profitable operations of manned stations, including in industry space transportation services. What saves this direction astronautics from binding to the state budget, removing the constraints for its further growth.
Orbital Transportation System
For flight in outer space should be used reusable transport ships, equipped with low-power, but cost-effective «plasma electro-reactive engines», «orbital tugs.»
Main advantages plasma engines is that they are ten times more economical than traditional «chemical» rocket engines, and in dozens of times stronger than the traditional «ionic» electro-jet engines. Which allows using them to move freely in space. Plasma engines are unpretentious in the choice of fuel, thus making them potentially «multi-fuel».
Orbital tugs must display mounted on a manned station on the working orbit satellites. Deliver to the station running satellites for the repair, maintenance, retrofitting and refueling. Translating them back into service after working orbits. Supply station alien raw materials at a price much cheaper than removal from Earth.
Now in space flying to chemical engines that actually disposable and extremely hungry.
They are only suitable for flight in one end and fuel consumption by several times the weight of the payload they carry, making interplanetary flights fabulously expensive. Plasma orbital tugs able to form the basis of a constant, low-cost space transportation infrastructure, the presence of which will give new opportunities for the development of human activity in the solar system.
Fuel and raw material base on the Moon
Fuel for orbital tugs in the early stages will be transported from Earth. But when the tugs will be many, will be more profitable to deliver fuel from the Moon. Because on this planet low gravity and no atmosphere, which makes removal of cargo to orbit the moon ten times easier and cheaper task than with delivery of cargoes from the Earth. And if there is raw material base on the moon and a few powerful tugs to deliver cargo into orbit, to supply fuel lunar orbital group will be profitable.
Now, there are several projects of production of liquid fuels on the Moon, which claims to be the oxygen. Which can be obtained from the lunar soil and can serve as fuel for engines or plasma oxidizing agent for chemical engines. Or fuel vapor «oxygen — hydrogen» which may be obtained from water found in the area of the lunar poles. And can serve as a fuel for chemical and for plasma thrusters.
By my concept, the main fuel for orbital tugs must serve lunar soil, ground into a fine, free-flowing powder.
Plasma engines able to consume any «working fluid», which can be controllably supplied to the plasma generator, including a powder substance. But compactor powder is much easier to produce than oxygen or water decomposition products. What makes the project «powder» of fuel and raw material base on the Moon is about ten times cheaper than similar projects, designed for the production of liquid fuels.
Powder base should be serviced by robots, controlled remotely from Earth. And powder should put into orbit a powerful mechanical catapult, operating on the principle of a sling. To disperse the loads due to the unwinding of a long rope. Unlike missiles sling requires no fuel cost, unlike electromagnetic guns or space elevators, it is relatively simple, light and inexpensive device.
With an estimated cost of between five and ten billion dollars. Project Powder lunar base inexpensive space standards and is available for private investors. But its implementation will provide a cheap source of alien fuel and mineral raw materials for low-Earth orbit constellation. And it creates the economic basis for the further development of lunar resources and the Moon.
Bases on the Earth orbit
Now mankind has orbital stations, but they find no practical use and serve as space research laboratories.
The grouping of large industrial Earth orbital station similar to the ISS or created by widening it must perform many practical functions such as:
transport function node serving the flow of cargo from the earth into an orbit interaction and performing flow excretion system orbital transport system. What would make her space transportation center.
Installation of a variety of designs and products, such as satellites, the «assemblage» of the modules for expeditions to other planets. Various equipment and supporting structures that make them the center of orbital assembly.
After the appearance of orbital tugs manned stations will take the base function for tugs and center for the repair and maintenance of satellites. What will their main operating centers.
Together with the start of production activities in space manned space station will be the main production centers. And in the longer term in their place can grow powerful orbital industrial complexes.
Manned station located in a low orbit in outer space, near-Earth satellites and equally accessible for freight flows from the earth in orbit, and for orbital tugs. Are people in them, protect against cosmic radiation Earth’s magnetic field. Due to its location, orbital stations are ideal for the role of the main support bases for human activity. Related to the installation, production, maintenance and servicing of spacecraft systems, space infrastructure.
Two main stages of growth constellation
Before you begin a large-scale industrialization of space, near-Earth satellite constellation and serving their industrial group must go through two main stages of growth. Related to quality upgrading of satellite communication systems and the development of space solar energy.
Modernization of satellite communication should take place by switching to a satellite platform with the antenna array of large area and power. Which must be mounted on orbital stations of the modular units and of sufficient sensitivity and capacity for communication via traditional cellular phones. And direct broadcast on traditional television and radio receivers.
Systems of satellite mobile communication and broadcasting services will make information universally accessible, regardless of the ground stations. And at least ten times to expand the market of space services. Causing corresponding increase in space grouping.
After the appearance of cheap infrastructure of transport systems and assembly centers in space will be profitable to build a powerful solar power plant.
Due to the absence of weightlessness and the atmosphere in the orbit can be made ultralight design of large area and relatively small mass. Who in the world would not stand no wind or its own weight. In space you can build a platform kilometer area of ultra-light structural and film mirrors that concentrate sunlight on generators. Orbital solar power will be fed from the natural fusion reactor of the solar system. Their energy is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and virtually inexhaustible. Now solar power projects are unprofitable, but the appearance of the space infrastructure can make them the most promising direction of development of power. Ability to displace conventional power stations running on fossil organic or nuclear fuel.
The direction of space solar energy, can make the space program a major global industry. Having trillions of momentum and are involved in its development the largest investment and scientific and industrial capacity.
After passing through the stage of growth, coupled with solar energy, aerospace industrial group receives sufficient power and the level of technological development to its further growth ceased to be a limited-service-Earth spacecraft and began to spread to the space of the solar system.
Production trend in the development of space industrial system is worth mentioning separately.
Now begins the change of technological structure, which implies transition from traditional, highly specialized production equipment and large, branched chains of production, from raw materials to final product, to a universal machine. Which will reduce the entire production chain to a few small machines. And at the same time receive a variety of finished products of high level of complexity. The most famous example of the machine «of a new cycle of industrialization» — a 3D-printer.
Change of technological structures will revolutionize the manufacturing and will make available large-scale industrialization of space.
Carry into space the traditional enterprise to do it building construction, all-terrain vehicles, and industrial equipment, capable of providing independent reproduction of generating capacity, prohibitively expensive. But the production chain, based on the machines of a new cycle, and can be placed in a standard space module weighing twenty tonnes.
In this case, the production unit will work on almost completely closed loop, being able to both obtain finished goods from the original minerals. And to make their own copies. The same modules, complete machines. And it will make it possible to start the industrialization of other planets and asteroids to send them all several production units and universal robots. Which will overlap and build infrastructure. Which will reduce the start-up costs while creating space companies to hundreds of millions or billions of dollars, the usual for big business.
On Earth, all the niches for the development of manufacturing business has long occupied, and any growth meets tough competition, to which in the near future will add more hard resource scarcity. But in space, unlike the Earth, available space and resources are limited. It is therefore logical to expect that when there will be a constant in space transportation infrastructure, reducing the cost of flights. And serving the industrial system, create a demand for various products, and begin to develop industrial direction.
In the early stages of development of the space industry production line will be limited to the production of simple parts. Structural and consumables recycled, gifts in terms of breeding. Such as the production of load-bearing trusses and fasteners of the empty tank rocket upper stage. Production of plastic fuel tanks missiles ISS and organic waste. Recycling of old satellites and other space debris at various useful products and materials.
After the appearance of the raw material base on the Moon will begin the development of extraterrestrial material, what will push its relative cheapness. And the expansion of industrial activity, which will encourage the growth of space groups. And the fact that many low-tech products, such as modules or truss structure, it will be cheaper to do at stations than to deliver to Earth.
With further development of the industrial groups production activities will also be developed and become more complex. The production system will become more high-tech, capable of producing not only simple parts and construction, but also sophisticated finished products. Such as modules for manned stations, housings spacecraft ATV to work on the Moon or mechanical equipment for lunar or asteroid bases. But the production line at the same time will continue to be a subsidiary.
When will the transition from the industrial system of extraterrestrial Earth service vehicles for commercial space exploration, production will be the main direction. And the further industrialization of space will go in the direction of the growth of the space industry and the supply system to the Earth of alien raw materials.
The development of the space industry as the direction of the economy
The proposed concept of the development of the space industry makes it possible to begin to build an extraterrestrial industrial system in the near future and to ensure its steady growth and development. Up to the stage of industrial development of the solar system.
As you know, theorists unanimously agree that the full practical development of space promises fantastic prospects for economic development. But can not find him realized approaches. Accepted copy space industrialization plans development of the industry in the world without taking into account the specific conditions of space. Unlike the Earth, in space, high transport costs, but a lot of energy and a lot of readily available mineral resources.
Accepted projects include the construction of space in commodity businesses, through the delivery of the equipment to the earth. But the costs of moving earth in the space industrial capacities are so great that such programs are either super-expensive and super mega-projects, nonsensical from a business perspective. And so they can not grow at the expense of private investment, not able to be a transitional bridge from earth to space industry. Or will need a completely new, cheaper spacecraft for the implementation of such programs. For example with a fusion engine, the creation of which is not possible on the basis of modern technologies.
My approach is expected to begin the creation of the space of the industrial system, adapted to the space environment. First with a near-Earth service commercial spacecraft. At this stage of the industrial system development and growth will take place. Then go to the beginning of large-scale industrialization of space. Not by moving into space industrial capacities from the Earth, but due to their construction from scratch. With the use of new technologies, used at the stage of service-Earth satellite constellation.
Without the transfer of large masses of equipment to the earth space industrialization process will be low-cost. And therefore, the development of the space industry on the proposed scenario does not hold back the need for sverhzatratah. As well as mobilization approaches. All members of his commercial projects designed for fast and steady return on investment.
Developing on the proposed scenario, space industrialization process will not expend public budgets, and the first steps will begin to fill the economy with money. And they brought in profits will grow steadily with the growth of the space of the industrial system, has not yet become the leading sector in the economy of the Earth. That translates colonizing space from the category futuristic abstraction in the category of achievable goals for economic development.
Practical mastery of asteroids and Mars
In addition to the concept of the industrialization of space due to the gradual development of the industrial system ranging from Earth orbit. I can offer the concept of development of the asteroid belt and Mars, based on the development of asteroid resources.
As is known, manned missions to Mars and the establishment of a permanent base on the planet is technically possible, and the state are willing to spend on a Martian base amount in the region of several tens of billions of dollars. But the road missions to Mars and Martian projects adopted in these amounts do not fit.
At the same time it is beginning to emerge towards the practical development of asteroids. Asteroids have a lot of variety of mineral resources in an easily accessible form. But investors are particularly attracted to the abundant and rich asteroid field of precious metals and rare earth elements. These substances are a valuable raw material in the manufacture of electronics and many high-tech industries. They are in demand, and the demand for them will continue to grow. At the same time they are expensive enough to justify the cost of space transport. Development of asteroid resources — this is one of the major, large-scale, practical areas of space exploration.
For prospective mining industry asteroid resources need support base, which will be based and maintained transport ships. Carried a heavy low-tech equipment for the extraction and crushing of the soil. Repair and maintain expensive high-tech equipment, delivered from Earth. One of the best locations for the main database «raw asteroid groups» — is the orbit of Mars, its moons, Phobos and Deimos.
Mars’ orbit is between asteroids and the Earth, it is close to the asteroid belt, but at the same time, Mars is slowly orbits the asteroid belt. What makes it a good place for exploration of the asteroid field and then «seeding» of the asteroid belt mining databases and service asteroid groups. And for intermediate processing, enrichment asteroidal resources, before sending them back to Earth.
Building «About the Martian industrial base» in the early stages should be carried out using remote-controlled robots with compensation of signal delay due to virtual reality. In the first place we must develop cheap reusable transport infrastructure. Established production facilities. Build terminals for spacecraft and ground in-depth work and habitable premises.
When the asteroid group and about the Martian base will grow, there will be the need for a support on the basis of human attendants. Conditions on orbital stations is not comfortable for people. And it would be appropriate to build a manned base for staff on the Martian surface, the conditions in which more resemble the earth.
Martian base for personnel operating near the Martian industrial system, will serve as a shift camp. Seating area between the watch on the Martian orbit. And place the remote control works on spaceships, robots and production lines through panels, with low latency. Mars will be located farm for the cultivation of fresh plants and other foods that are needed for people.
Unlike research projects manned bases on Mars in the concept of «Martian shift camp» Martian base and the presence of people is economically justified. Funding «on a rotational basis» is not limited to research budgets, and it will grow with the growth of the asteroid groups. In the future, Mars accommodation camp has all chances to become the first center of permanent settlement and industrialization of Mars.
In contrast to the abstract scientific and humanitarian programs for the development of Mars. The beginning of the colonization of the planet by an asteroid base groups in its orbit is a cost-based approach. Having assured the chances of realization in the foreseeable future.
The merger of the asteroid and Mars program allows you to combine capital and scientific and industrial capacity of government agencies and private companies on mutually beneficial terms.
For privateers part of state budgets and the state scientific and industrial infrastructure will provide significant additional resources. For public administrations space, transport infrastructure and equipment for the construction of bases, which will create the private traders, allow to reduce considerably the costs of their research programs. Such a mutually beneficial union will contribute to the acceleration of the asteroid and Mars programs in the early stages.
The consequences of colonization of space for humanity
Large-scale industrial space colonization will be based on a new cycle of technologies, it will be low-cost and fast. Countless production modules and robots will duplicate each other, to build heavy industry and infrastructure exponentially. Causing rapid and unchecked growth of extraterrestrial industrial facilities.
«Fulminant growth» space industry will lead to the fact that it is relatively fast, for one or more decades to exceed industrial and economic potential of the Earth. After which its growth to continue with even more increasing rate. Because of what the world civilization upon entry into the space age will enter into a state of constant and rapid development.
Space industry will mainly deliver to Earth valuable source of raw materials, various metals and rare elements. But consume high-tech products, manufactured on Earth. By the beginning of the industrial development of space beyond Earth has a powerful will run freight transport infrastructure, based on orbital tugs. And begin the transition to the transport infrastructure of class «earth — orbit» system of new generation. Cheap and designed for large cargo. Such as space elevators powerful electromagnetic catapult or «Rotary sling», located at a high altitude, the atmosphere. The establishment of such systems is possible and at the present stage, but now they are too expensive and unprofitable. When cargo between Earth and space get trillionth cost, they will become profitable.
On Earth, space resources will be processed the same automated industrial complexes in various facilities. Machinery and consumer products. Causing industrial and economic growth, following the growth of the space industry. In contrast to the modern world industry, the industry, based on space-based resources, will be environmentally friendly. Since the dirtiest energy, mining and processing industry will be put beyond Earth.
space colonization will cause separation of specialization between the earth and the space industry. Space production system is low-tech. Its main advantages are a simple device and rapid growth.
High-tech products, for the assembly of the space industry, such as electronics and precision mechanics, ship engines or e-filling robot, will be produced on Earth. Since for its production need complex production lines, high control and the participation of a large number of specialists. Focusing on the world of science-intensive industries will transform the earth into a global scientific and technical center. A sort of «Silicon Valley of the solar system.» Which, respectively, will lead to a general rise in the level of security, literacy, culture, information and legal protection. Which can now be seen on the example of the largest research and development centers and advanced economies.
Increasing the share of knowledge-intensive industries in the world economy, along with the growth of the space industry, will make the world development are not only quantitative but also qualitative. How to accelerate scientific and technological progress and overall progress in the development of world civilization.
The transition to the space age, the most powerful cause of all previous history, economic, technological and general civilization of mankind rise.
Forthcoming in the future cosmic expansion is largely similar to the Maritime expansion of Europe. Which began about five hundred years ago. And cause the economic recovery in Europe, the development of technology and science. Which ultimately raised mankind to the current level of the Middle Ages. The only difference is that space colonization is not subject to the new lands, along with their population, and asteroids and uninhabited planet. And unlike the civilized races took place, which lasted a century, the speed of progress of modern technology, along with the power of modern industry and the economy, will rise in world civilization to the next level much faster. When using rational approaches to the development of the space industry, the first significant results of the colonization of space will be available in the next few decades.
Modern possibilities of space to start the process of industrialization
Modern humanity has everything you need to start the colonization of space in the near future. But not fully aware of its prospects and is committed to finding swift and effective ways of its development. Task start colonization of space is realizable. In the last decade, it is in the air, but seriously it is not put on the agenda.
Now there is a strong scientific and industrial system of public space administrations. There are advanced satellite constellation and space services sector is leading the development of mass-Earth orbit satellites.
Investors space services sector are interested in the further expansion of the market.
There is a technology design and space plasma thrusters of 3D-printers. We began to appear private groups and initiatives of some practical development of space resources. From a technical point of view, to start the process of colonization of space has everything you need. But this activity is still in its infancy, its members are separated. Their plans do not go beyond their own departmental or corporate programs. And serious space colonization is not put on the agenda as a target for economic development. And as the direction of civilizational, expansionist movement to develop new spaces and progress.
The development of space industrial system, according to the proposed scenario allows you to create outside the Earth’s infrastructure, transport and industrial core, which will serve as a basis for the development of any activity beyond Earth. Repeatedly reducing its costs and giving opportunities to expand its scope.
Without a permanent industrial system, space activities are doomed to remain within the framework of one-off programs. Having a small scale compared with the global economy. But the advent of the industrial system can unite around different participants in space activities, in one of the world financial-industrial group. Which will have sufficient financial resources and scientific and industrial capacity for the development of space programs on a global scale.
Colonization of Space — a global super-task, and for a sufficiently rapid progress of mankind in outer space is necessary to concentrate resources on a global scale. As well as the possibility to integrate the global industrial system beyond Earth and practical motivation for this integration. World Space financial industrial group working in line with the sustainable development of space — a potential framework for achieving this level of ambition.
Colonization of the space available and beneficial, direct your attention towards the conquest of space, and get a new perspective, which may seem fantastic right now.
In this article, I want to make an open statement to the Space and society. To adopt the proposed initiatives me, and it will give you many new opportunities.
For the participants of space activities proposed the concept of space industrialization and integration — it is an opportunity to revitalize the space program, located virtually at a standstill since the end of the Cold War. With whom is no longer current space race. Colonization of Space — Space is a half-forgotten important task, and its revival will draw to space activities as much attention and resources, how much she had, even in periods of exacerbation of the records of the race.
For privateers and strategic investors, the colonization of the cosmos — is opening a new market that is capable of rapid and unlimited growth. The potential of which exceeds all known analogs.
Private firms planning to develop new areas of practical space exploration, it is mainly American companies. Such as «Space X» Elon Musk, or company «Deep Space Industries» and «Planetary Resources», planning to mine asteroid resources.
In Russia, a potential participant in the industrialization of space can be a corporation «Energia». It spun off from state structures and inherited their traditionalism. But her administration also supports the new initiatives in space exploration. And in contrast to the newly formed US businesses, «Energy» has a great scientific and industrial capacity. Russian participant of space industrialization can act and updated «Roskosmos», which is now converted into a state corporation. Along with the change in format of the organization and possible reformatting of its strategic policy, the transition from the public procurement for commercial activities. The direction of development of the space industry in the Russian firms do not lag behind international standards. Actively develop national satellite constellation Russia is hampered by the lack of national components for electronics production. But for industrial electronics group is not critical, it’s mostly «Iron», ships, modules and equipment. Russian scientific and industrial capacity, producing «Cosmic Iron» is not inferior to the world’s largest competitors. And accordingly, Russia has them equal opportunities when entering into «industrial space race.»
Space enthusiasts appearance implemented and effective approaches to the colonization of space will make a reality the main important task and the main dream, the prospect of the imminent transition of mankind in space age. With which human civilization will receive a completely new level of development, and will move into a new quality.
For people who do not have a direct relationship to the cosmos, a new cycle of industrialization and development of the industry outside of the Earth — is the growth of income and quality of life, extending to the earth and many times superior to any conventional modernization rate. The speed and the absence of limits to growth space industry could in ten years after the start of the mass industrialization of space to raise the average standard of living in several times. And in a decade to raze it to the level of the most developed countries of today, and then begin the ever-increasing growth and progress in all areas.
Prospects who can bring space colonization may seem fantastic right now. But the growth curve of progress over the last century brought to life many of the most daring futuristic forecasts.
Necessary for colonization of space technologies are already available, begins the birth of the individual industries of the future space industry. The idea of space colonization is now up in the air, but they have not been able to form a functional approach to the development of the solar system. Offered me in the field of advanced space industry initiatives. Plans for its creation and development, and the concentration of resources in space industrialization direction, lead to the colonization of space is not just a futuristic outlook and direction of economic development. And achievable in the foreseeable future for the purpose of the expansionist movement to the development of new spaces. Achieving new levels of technological and civilizational development.