Description of the basic principles and technologies for the construction of “Subsurface” (Underground) alien bases, which will be the main ones during the period of mass, industrial, and human colonization of space. Giving people a safe living space, protected from space threats, extreme temperature radiation and meteoric dust. Description of the building robots of the future and the earthly predecessors of space building technologies in the modern world.
Benefits of subsurface bases on other planets and asteroids.
Now, when you say an alien base, or a space settlement, a standard picture appears in the imagination of most people, familiar from photographs from the forecasts of space agencies.
On the surface of the Moon or Mars, there are several modules similar to the ISS, only on legs. Or there is a complex of buildings, consisting of many modules, technological rooms, and industrial enterprises. But such projects of bases on the surface of other planets appeared in the minds of engineers who planned to build single scientific bases on other planets, if they received sufficient funding for this. They did not plan practical space exploration with permanent residence of people.
In reality, the bulk of buildings on other planets, especially those intended for humans, will not be on the surface, but buried in the ground. These will be “Subsurface Bases”, more like cave settlements or cities.
Why do you need to bury yourself on other planets? On the surface, extreme conditions, in which it is impossible to live for a long time, are literally deadly for people. Extreme temperatures, on planets with no atmosphere or asteroids, meterone dust and meteorites, and to top it off, radiation. If you can still protect yourself from temperature changes and meteoric dust, then the only way to protect yourself from radiation is to bury yourself in the ground, to a depth of at least several meters, and preferably several tens of meters.
What will conditions be like on the lunar surface? It is a rocky desert with daily temperature fluctuations, from plus 120 in the daytime to minus 170 at night. Due to the lack of atmosphere, unweakened cosmic radiation will fall on the surface, and fine meteoric dust, dust grains, grains of sand, small stones flying at a speed of 2.5 to 80 kilometers per second will constantly fall. For comparison, the speed of a bullet from a Kalashnikov assault rifle is 1 kilometer per second, the speed of the fastest anti-aircraft and armor-piercing shells is 1.5 kilometers per second. Imagine that you live in a desert, in which the heat is 40 degrees during the day and frost at night, minus 50 degrees, on the moon the temperature drops will be another hundred degrees more. Bullets and shot are constantly flying from the sky, and radiation in which in a few months you will receive a dangerous dose. At the same time, there is a vacuum outside,
Roughly the same conditions on asteroids close to the earth.
What’s on Mars? There is air, but it consists of poisonous gases, and its pressure is 0.7% of the earth’s atmosphere, it is practically a vacuum. Radiation, slightly weakened by the atmosphere, but still harsh. The temperature, in summer, ranges from plus 20 to minus 70, in winter from minus 40 to minus 100. The only advantage over the moon is the absence of meteoric dust.
Would you like to live in such conditions?
But at the same time, on the moon, in the soil, there is no radiation, no meteors, and a constant temperature of about plus 35 degrees, above room temperature, but within normal limits, and besides, the temperature will still be regulated by life support systems. Quite comfortable living conditions.
On Mars, in the thickness of the soil, the temperature will be lower, and heat insulators will need to be protected from the frozen soil. The load on life support systems will be greater, but in general the conditions are also quite suitable for life.
Why didn’t the designers of the alien bases think about the dangers of life on the surface? They simply transferred their familiar orbital stations to the surface of the planets. Reflecting. On the Moon or Mars, it will be approximately the same as what we are doing now, only there the modules will stand on the surface, and not fly in zero gravity. In addition, space agency analysts planned only scientific bases in which people should not live for a long time, flew in for several months, worked out the program, flew back, just like to the ISS. Cosmic radiation in a few months will give a dose close to dangerous, but not fatal, with the proviso that if there are no strong flares in the sun, they can fry people in a few days. Now they are starting to think about protection, they are planning to fill the modules with a layer of soil, or cover them with concrete domes.
But if you think more far-sightedly, why would planets live in modules at all? The modules are expensive, their delivery to other planets costs a lot of money, the space in them is limited, only the minimum necessary for life and scientific work.
At the same time, if the modules are left only on the surface as transitional, airlock compartments. And the main premises for living and working should be done in the form of tunnels and grottoes in the depths of the ground. Residential modules do not need to be delivered from the ground, you can dig up as many tunnels and grottoes as you like, the space is practically unlimited. In cave towns, you can live more comfortably, and place farms for growing edible plants and animals, and make extraterrestrial production centers. Consumables in tunnels will require building materials that can be produced from soil, and materials for sealing, such as sheet metal, aluminum or iron, which can also be produced from soil.
If tunnels are built at a depth of tens of meters or deeper, the soil there can provide airtightness without air-tight walls. On the Moon, in the depths, a solid, monolithic rock, consisting of volcanic glass. On Mars, it is not yet clear, but with a high probability the soil is wet and is a monolith of sand, dust and ice.
To compensate for the low gravity on the Moon and Mars, it is possible to build ring tunnels with living modules moving along them. In the rotating living quarters, centrifugal force will be created, replacing the Earth’s gravity, similar to the rotating wheels in the projects of large orbital stations. People will enter the rotating rest and sleep compartments, and this will be enough to minimize the damage from the reduced gravity in the rest of the rooms.
The tunnels will be illuminated either by artificial light or by sunlight coming through a system of waveguides, pipes with mirrored walls, from concentrating mirrors on the surface. Sunlight will make people feel more comfortable and grow plants with the least amount of energy.
In the longer term, at large bases or in cities, domes of glass of many meters thickness, impervious to radiation, will be built. In which people can spend time in direct sunlight, seeing the sky, the sun during the day, and the stars at night. But such domes will be expensive and rare.
Industrialization of space.
Why is the concept of underground cave settlements not being published in the media despite its many clear advantages? Now even analysts hardly think about the full-scale colonization of space. And they do not plan how to live and work in it. For the first, experimental missions, several modules on the surface or a little deepened into the ground are enough, so they publish such pictures, creating an appropriate image of the future in the minds of people.
But this image of the future is not correct. Bases in the form of modules on the surface, in reality, if they exist, then only at the first, experimental, stage of colonization of planets and asteroids. And according to normal logic, you need to immediately plan the construction of the first inhabited bases of subsurface, tunnel towns. Only at the first stage, robots should build them so that people immediately fly into tunnels ready for life, and do not get fried from radiation on the surface.
I am a non-systemist, a supporter of the development of space expansion, and I believe that it is necessary to popularize the colonization of space, with a description of real details, so that people have a real idea about it, have expectations and aspirations that can lead to real results. A scientific demonstration strategy for space exploration will not lead to its colonization. Colonization of the solar system is a massive development of extraterrestrial industry. Motivated by practical goals, striving for economic growth, expanding the resource base and human habitat.
Do you think that full-scale space expansion is a matter of the distant future, and it is too early to think about it? Depends on what scenario it will develop.
The scenario adopted by the states is the gradual expansion of space research, which, whenever in the uncertain, but certainly not the near future, will lead to large-scale, industrial space exploration. But the states do not have such a goal to begin the colonization of space, they have a goal in twenty years to build scientific bases on the Moon, if it works out, then on Mars. Stick a checkbox there and raise your rating due to this. Further, their plans for space exploration do not go, and what a vision of the future, such an image of the future from their submission, a base of several modules on the Moon and Mars.
I have nothing to do with government agencies, I belong to private traders, non-systemists. My interests and vision of the future is the development of trends leading to the colonization of space, the development of corporations capable of carrying it out, the development of the resources of the solar system, which are practically unlimited in comparison with the earth. Economic growth and all-round development on earth at the expense of space resources.
Microfabricated replicators in the space industry.
To speed up space exploration, in order not to linger at the stage of experiments, in my opinion, it is necessary to use new technologies in production. Lightweight, mobile micro-factories, consisting of several 3D printers and assembly manipulators, are capable of producing complex products, such as robots or industrial equipment, and making copies of themselves – “Replicas”, multiplying. Such miniature production facilities – “Replicators”, will be light and cheap enough to transport them into space without huge costs. But in space, they will rapidly increase their numbers, creating robotic groups like insect colonies.
A colony of thousands of individuals grows from one ant or termite per year. Similarly, from one micro-factory launched to another planet or an asteroid, an industrial base will grow in a few years, in which there will be thousands of micro-factories and robots, and a production center will operate. Such colonies will grow rapidly, their numbers will increase exponentially. The industrialization of the solar system with their help will proceed at a high pace and with high economic efficiency.
Micro-factories replicators are a key technology necessary for a fairly rapid colonization of the solar system and the transformation of humanity into a space civilization. And this technology should be the main focus. When replicators appear, they will build both a space industry and a new space transport infrastructure that will be ten times cheaper and millions of times more productive than a modern rocket one. Further growth and quality development without limiting ceilings due to resource scarcity and environmental problems on the ground.
The future of space expansion is decided not by space agencies and traditional rocket corporations, but by startups engaged in developing technologies for the space industry or organizing the transformation of humanity into a space civilization.
In my opinion, the development of space colonization technologies in the near future will take place on earth in the “Subspace” spheres. In the form of the terrestrial predecessors of the space industry, based on the same principles and technologies that would later be used to industrialize the solar system. And over time, when sub-space industries and businesses grow on earth, they will create the economic and technological basis for the colonization of space. These forces will be interested in the development of space resources, will have the necessary financial resources and technologies, and will become the main initiators and investors in the development of extraterrestrial industry.
Subspace corporations and business communities will operate in different areas. Industry flagship replicators, digital manufacturing and robots. But other, more massive industries, vital for people, food and construction, will also work.
The construction industry is one of the foundations of industry and economics, everything that is done is done either inside buildings or using the transport infrastructure that has been built and people live in houses. The construction industry is vital for industry and for life, it is closely interconnected with other industries and the economy, and a lot of money is spinning in it. Construction is one of the largest sectors of the world economy, its share in world GDP is about 14%.
How will habitable bases be built according to the scenario of space colonization by replicators and robots?
A large construction corporation, or a large community of entrepreneurs, is organizing an alien industrial base project. They buy a microfabricated replicator and a robot, buy a rocket and a spaceship to deliver them to the moon or asteroid. The first vehicles arriving at the base deployment site begin to work. The robot prepares the site for the replicator, installs solar generators, extracts resources, the replicator churns out its copies and new robots. Over a period, from several months to several years, depending on the level of technology, a grouping of robots and replicators reaches hundreds or thousands of machines.
Robots build infrastructure, roads and work spaces, technological lines and workshops for the repair and maintenance of machines. A complex, high-tech core of the base’s industrial infrastructure is emerging. Workshops for the production of high-tech parts in order to reduce their supply from the ground as much as possible, factories that produce spaceships for the further distribution of robotic bases. The base is becoming more complex, high-tech industries appear on it, and accordingly, the management of the base becomes more complicated.
Artificial intelligence, computer control centers, can cope with the control of a swarm of robots, in the early stages of base deployment. But the capabilities of computer intelligence are limited, in fact it is not intelligence, but a complex, powerful, calculating machine. He copes well with the same type of operations. But in difficult situations requiring extraordinary and multivariate approaches, it turns out, if not helpless, then ineffective.
Remote control from the ground also has its limitations. Due to communication delays and the inability for people to directly perform actions. Remotely, it is possible to adjust the machine control of the base, but it will be difficult to service high-tech production halls through manipulators with communication delays. When complex, high-tech activities appear on the base, in large volumes, people will be needed for management and maintenance. Dispatchers, engineers, designers. States and universities will also send scientists to the bases for their research.
When human crews arrive at industrial bases, the bases will already have premises suitable for living and working, they will be built by robots. Crews will fly to ready-made subsurface bases.
People on industrial alien bases will be mainly engaged in management, design, maintenance and repair of complex industries, repair of complex machines. Perform the functions of top managers and engineers. Scientific research will be carried out as side activities, and it is possible that tourists will fly to the alien bases.
Using people in space for simple, mechanical work is not profitable. The delivery and life support of people on alien bases costs at least tens of millions of dollars, provided that cheaper reusable rockets appear. On modern rockets, it would cost hundreds of millions of dollars to get one person to the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid. The creation of a habitable base will cost tens of billions of dollars. At such a price, using mechanical human labor in manufacturing or construction is like making rails out of gold.
The space industry will be mainly built and serviced by robots, there will be few people in space. People will control thousands of groups of robots. In the space industry, people will serve large industrial capacities, perform the most top-quality types of work, and, accordingly, earn big money.
Space industry maintenance personnel will earn tens of millions of dollars per watch. One flight into space, for several years, will be enough to provide for oneself for life.
On materials for space construction.
In space, construction will mainly use materials that can be found or produced directly at the construction site of the base. Foot materials.
These are blocks of stone. On space bodies rich in water, Mars or asteroids, it will be possible to produce concrete.
The promising material Fibrous Ceramics will be widely used. It is a mineral fiber obtained from basalt or sand, mixed with sand and sintered at a high temperature. Such a substance is a composite of mineral fiber and mineral binder. Composite materials are durable and flexible. Fibrous ceramics in their properties will be similar to metals, but in production it will be easier and cheaper than metals. The raw materials for its manufacture, sand and basalt, are widely available. Energy for its production is needed less than for the reduction of metals from oxides. The production of fibrous ceramics does not require energy-intensive chemical reactions. It is enough to heat the raw material with sunlight concentrated by mirrors, spray the resulting glass on a centrifugal drum, turning it into fiber.
Fiber ceramic beams and sheets will be used in space structures instead of steel construction parts. Fibrous ceramics will also be widely used in the space industry, replacing metals.
Together with fibrous ceramics, a mineral fabric made of glass or basalt fibers will be used. For light buildings, tents, tents and awnings.
There will be little use of metals in space construction. Only when necessary, mainly for fasteners or special buildings. Deposits of metals are rare and local. A lot of energy is spent on the reduction of metals from oxides. On earth, iron is reduced by reaction with coal, so it is cheap, but in space there is no coal and no oxygen atmosphere. Aluminum is recovered by electric current, so it is expensive. In space, both iron and aluminum will need to be recovered by electricity, at a high cost of energy. But at the same time, it will be possible to produce fibrous ceramics using sand and sunlight, which are always in abundance.
On the types of space buildings.
There will be two main types of structures in space, above-surface and subsurface.
First type. Above-surface buildings. These are mainly lightweight hangars for technical purposes, energy infrastructure, solar generators, and surface transport infrastructure, roads.
Above-surface structures will generally be lightweight, not airtight, in the form of tents or frameworks sheathed with light panels. Similar to modern industrial buildings on the ground.
Lightweight structures will mainly consist of three-layer panels or fabric. Two layers of fibrous ceramic sheets and between them a layer of mineral wool, on a lightweight frame. Or tent structures covered with mineral fabric in two layers, with a layer of mineral wool between them. Such three-layer walls of lightweight buildings will have good thermal insulation, smoothing out temperature drops. And they will be able to protect from meteoric dust. The dust particles, punching through the first layer, will be crushed into microscopic dust, which will get stuck in the mineral wool.
Light buildings on the surface will mainly be used as technical rooms, for placing machines, production equipment. Or as warehouses for storing various materials.
Second type. Subsurface structures will be complexes of tunnels and grottoes laid in the ground. Reinforced with masonry or concrete walls if the soil is loose. And lined from the inside with sheet metal for sealing.
Subsurface buildings will be more comfortable and safer. They will have the Earth’s atmosphere and temperature, complete protection from radiation and meteors. But they will be more difficult to build, more expensive, and will have less space.
The subsurface buildings will house living quarters for people, farms for growing edible plants and animals, workshops for high-tech production or complex repairs, research laboratories.
Subsurface structures will be constructed primarily of masonry or concrete.
On the moon, where water is scarce but hard, vitreous bedrock is abundant, masonry will be used predominantly. Construction robots will cut tunnels in the thickness of the monolithic, rocky soil. Directly cutting the soil into standardized blocks. Some part of the blocks will be used to strengthen tunnels and grottoes at shallow depths, where the soil is loose. The rest, the surplus, will be thrown to the surface, where it will be used for the construction of walls, foundations and roads.
Stone construction is an archaic technology. But it has its advantages, especially with the use of high technology and construction robots. Stone blocks with the shape of detachable joints can be sufficiently well fastened to each other without mortar. Construction robots will allow you to build from stone quickly and efficiently. Stone buildings are not the most durable. But their strength is sufficient to withstand a layer of soil up to tens of meters, especially under lunar gravity. The advantage of stone buildings is that they are reliable and durable.
Famous examples of stone structures are the remains of ancient structures and roads. The remains of ancient stone temples have stood for millennia, the ancient stone roads are still functioning.
On the moon, masonry can be used in the form of arches, with in tunnels, and in the form of domes in grottoes. The hemispherical shape of arches and domes evenly distributes the load to the ceiling and transfers it to the walls. Thanks to this, the arched structures are very strong and reliable, even if the stones are not held together by concrete mortar. In more spacious rooms, in loose soil, arched ceilings with columns can be used. Such designs are now widely used in metro stations. There are examples of ancient structures built from arches, this is the well-known Colosseum, and an underground storage for water built in Byzantine Constantinople “Basilica Cistern”.
On Mars, where the soil is loose and moist, or on asteroids from loose soil, which has a high water content, concrete mortar can be used for construction. Space concrete is likely to have mineral fiber added for added strength. And instead of steel reinforcement, fibrous ceramic rods are used. Otherwise, it will be little different from concrete common on the ground.
The Martian subsurface structures will also be a complex of tunnels, grottoes with hemispherical ceilings and halls with arched ceilings supported by columns. With the difference that predominantly concrete will be used in construction.
Concrete building structures will be used on asteroids with loose soil. On rocky or iron asteroids, there is no point at all in supporting structures. Structures may be needed only for technical purposes. But due to the scanty gravity of the asteroids, lightweight fiber-ceramic frameworks will suffice for this purpose.
About space construction robots.
Space construction projects will require light, multipurpose vehicles that are compact enough to be freely positioned and operated in tunnels.
In my opinion, construction robots and manipulators will be used in space. And universal semi-anthropomorphic robots that will be used for different purposes, but in construction, too, if necessary.
Robots manipulators will be one or more manipulators fixed on a movable platform. The platform can move either on a flyover, or move more freely on a tracked or wheeled chassis.
Manipulators are convenient because they allow you to perform different types of construction work. They can print with concrete, like construction printers, and build from stone, and build on lightweight structures or reinforcement for reinforced concrete, and tunnel through the ground. Depends on which attachment to equip the manipulator. At the same time, the manipulators of the device are lightweight, compact and flexible.
I think space construction robots manipulators will be constructed in a modular fashion. It is a set of standardized parts from which you can assemble the machine you need for a particular case. The main set of parts is manipulators of several modifications, platforms, and different chassis for moving platforms.
Robots, fixed on guiding structures, are limited in movement, but they themselves can build on structures along which they move, and can be used to build high frames. Such robots will move along the frames that they themselves build, and the height does not matter for them. And after the construction of the frame, they will sheathe it with panels or fill it with concrete.
Robots on a wheeled or tracked chassis, convenient for tunneling and the construction of low buildings on the surface.
It will be possible to put different manipulators in different quantities on the robot platform. For example, if you need to build a large building from heavy parts, beams and blocks, you can put one long and powerful manipulator on the platform. If you need to build a frame and sheathe it with panels, you can put several light manipulators. If you need to build a tunnel and build up supporting walls in it, you can put several different types of manipulators on the platform. For some manipulators to dig soil or cut rock, others immediately built the walls of the tunnel.
Multipurpose robots will look like humans. These will be mostly semi-anthropomorphic robots, with a humanoid mechanical torso, fixed on a mobile platform “Robots Centaurs”. Caterpillar, wheeled or moving along guiding structures. Centaurs are mechanical workers for a variety of jobs. Their humanoid shape and size make them the most versatile working mechanisms and, if necessary, make it possible to control them remotely. Such robots will accurately follow the movements of the operator’s hands on the control panel. And they will enable people to work through “Telepresence”, on the surface of the planets, without leaving the hostile conditions of space.
In construction, the centaurs will be of little use, the manipulators are short, the power is small. They will be used as auxiliary machines, mechanical auxiliary workers. Or used in special cases when specialized construction robots cannot complete a task.
Possibilities of using promising space concepts in the modern construction industry.
In the land construction industry, the construction of underground structures has long been used. This is a subway, tunnels in the mountains, underground parking. The principles and technologies of construction are the same as will be applied in space. Stone construction is not used, but on the ground there is no need for it, water for making concrete mortar is not in short supply, and concrete structures are better than stone ones in all respects. From blocks with detachable connections there are Lego bricks or Lego blocks. They allow you to build faster, get smoother and stronger masonry.
Terrestrial super-surface structures for technical purposes are about the same as in space. On the ground, these are steel beam frames sheathed with sheet metal or lightweight panels. In space, there will be similar structures, only mostly made of fibrous ceramics.
But future-proof construction vehicles for space are a new trend in construction technology and could be of great benefit in helping modernize the construction industry.
Such machines can almost completely replace human labor in construction. They will allow you to build many times faster and cheaper.
Now there are no construction robots manipulators on the market. This is a new trend.
Of the promising construction machines that meet the parameters of space age robots, portal construction 3D printers are mainly used. But such printers are large and heavy, they are only suitable for the construction of small, one-story buildings. Modern construction 3D printers cannot build lightweight frames and install concrete reinforcement. The concrete buildings, without fittings, that such printers print are not durable and not reliable. Gantry construction printers can only build small, one-story houses.
There is one expert circular circuit printer, compact and lightweight.
Circular construction 3D printer “Apis – Cor”, project website: https://www.apis-cor.com/
This is a construction 3D printer of a circular diagram, which is a rotating extending boom with a print head at the end. Apis Cor is an underrated car in my opinion. This printer is lightweight, it is quickly mounted on the construction site, has a large working volume, can build multi-storey buildings, as long as the strength of unreinforced concrete is enough. But this printer did not go into mass production.
Startup organizer Russian engineer and entrepreneur Nikita Chen-Yun-Tai. Participated in NASA competitions for the construction of a base on Mars.
Now there are experienced robots with manipulators that are used to dismantle debris. And there are several construction machines with manipulators. But there are still no full-fledged construction robots manipulators capable of building in an autonomous mode, they have yet to be developed.
There are several machines on the market that can be considered the predecessors of construction robotic manipulators. These are machines such as:
“Baubot” is a newly developed and experienced construction robot with a manipulator on a tracked moving platform. The start-up of the Australian firm “Prinstones” announced in April 2021, the project website: https://www.baubot.com/
It is a small robot with a battery-powered electric propulsion system with a battery life of about 8 hours. The radius of action of his manipulator is a meter, accuracy is within a millimeter. The manipulator has different attachments, a gripper for moving loads, a screwdriver for screwing in screws, a milling attachment for drilling and cutting stone, an attachment for plasma cutting and welding of steel sheets. The tracks allow this robot to climb stairs. In my opinion, the baubot robot is the closest analogue of the space construction robots of the future. But this robot, due to its small size, cannot be a full-fledged construction machine, rather it is an auxiliary robot, a mechanical assistant for people at a construction site.
baubot is still at the prototype stage. But now it is possible to buy these cars by preliminary orders, the price of one car is 150 thousand euros.
DFAB House robot, company website: https://dfabhouse.ch/
It is a robot for the construction of small wooden houses on the automated construction site “Spatial Timber Assemblies” . By design, it consists of two manipulators attached to a platform on the ceiling, capable of moving on guide beams. Robots of this design can be used to automate construction. But they are stationary, designed for the automatic construction of small modular buildings. Such machines are convenient for the earth, but they are unlikely to be widely used in space.
Robot manipulator on crawler chassis IN SITU FABRICATOR . This is not a construction, but a welding robot, its tasks are welding of steel reinforcing meshes of complex shapes. In the future, scientific and technical developments on this machine will simplify the creation of universal construction robots that combine the capabilities of welding machines and 3D printing from concrete. Able to build houses and structures from monolithic, reinforced concrete.
Shimizu Corporation robots.
Shimizu launches a line of three construction robots
This is a robot welder, with one manipulator, on a wheeled chassis. Equipped with a laser system for high-precision orientation in space, and is able to work on construction sites with a high degree of autonomy.
A robotic loader, for moving building materials in workshops or at a construction site, with a high degree of autonomy and capable of independently driving elevators.
And a robot for installing ceilings. It consists of two manipulators moving on guiding structures installed on the floor.
Robot for automatic construction of bricks or small blocks “Hadrian – X”, developed by the Australian firm Fastbrick Robotics . A modernized version of the earlier Hadrian 105, which has a higher laying speed of 200 bricks per hour, up from 75. It is a truck-mounted manipulator arm similar in appearance to a mobile crane. On the boom of this machine there is a conveyor belt for feeding bricks, at the end of the boom there is a device for automatic laying of bricks with concrete mortar.
The listed construction robots are the forerunners of future space construction machines. Their presence indicates that the trend of transition to robotic construction has already been launched and is starting to develop. In the future, the improvement of technologies in this direction will lead to the emergence of serial, autonomous construction robots, including those designed to work in space.
Now the principles of construction of subsurface structures can be used in the construction of individual “Houses – bunkers”, which are highly resistant to various natural disasters. This principle of construction can be used by customers of individual houses, or construction firms.
Houses are bunkers made on the principles of space subsurface bases, these are buildings in the form of arches or domes, deepened into the ground, or possibly covered with soil from above. The walls of such houses, due to the uniform distribution of the load, are many times stronger than rectangular ones. The load applied to them acts in compression, but does not act on fracture, and concrete is very strong in compression. Such houses will withstand any earthquake and hurricane, even a tornado. If a house is closed on top with a layer of heat insulator, for example, porous concrete or basalt wool, or covered with a layer of soil about a meter thick, it can withstand severe forest fires. Home bunkers are only vulnerable to flooding.
But for flood protection, another space-age building technology, lightweight domes made of metal frames and plastic sheeting, such as Fuller Domes, can be used. If, during construction in regions with a threat of flooding, houses are built on a slab of concrete, with waterproofing between concrete and the ground, plastic film, or rubber glue, and covered with a dome on top, the house is in an airtight bubble. Heavy rains or flooding of rivers, with an increase in the water level up to one and a half meters, such houses will not be able to flood. If the water level rises higher, the house can be built with lightweight materials on a low density porous concrete platform. Such a house during a severe flood will float until the water subsides.
You can read more about the principles and technologies of building houses, according to the standards of space civilization for the earth, in the previous review – “Building technologies and types of houses of the space age available now”
In this article, I gave a general description of the principles and technologies of construction, which will later become widespread during the period of mass colonization of space.
It will give you a more realistic idea of the upcoming space expansion, what it will be like and what to expect from it. And to some extent, it will promote the development of space expansion, forming an information template for the construction of a space civilization, which will later be embodied in actions.